Eastern empids. These 5 are common breeders in parts of eastern North America (N.A), three following the boreal forest to Yukon or Alaska. Shown are major sounds (blue letters), with song-types to left, followed by most important calls, ending with call note at far right. Major features are marked with arrows, keyed to numbers in text. Vocalizations not learned, hence highly stereotyped throughout range, unlike Oscines. Black bar (at bottom of sonogram) indicates use of sound above it in predawn singing (dawn-song); yellow bar indicates use after dawn. Across top is 10-sec segment of dawn-song (60 sec for WIFL) to show pacing (half-oscillograms above blue line) and syntax (letters keyed to song-types). Acoustically, all these sounds are bold frequency sweeps punctuated with a few raspy sounds (saw-toothed traces below), typical of flycatcher family (Tyrannidae). Text includes conventional transliterations of sounds in italics, plus those of Pieplow eastern guide when different. Click on the spectrographic trace of each sound to hear it. This page uses frames, which have been deprecated by HTML authorities, but are the best way to achieve the desired effect of comparing sounds aurally while looking at the spectrographic traces. You can resize the top frame, even making it invisible, and the sounds will still play. Right click outside the red lines and select "view frame source," to see code, which will reveal the provenance of each recording. All text, layout, and sonograms Dougald Archibald McCallum. Recordings Dougald Archibald McCallum, except where indicated in code. Visit Macaulay Library to appreciate variation.